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Minggu, 27 November 2016

Types of Servers in Networking

Types of Servers in Networking - A server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers. The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a server. That machine may be a dedicated server or used for other purposes as well.

In the client/server programming model, a server program awaits and fulfills requests from client programs, which may be running in the same or other computers. A given application in a computer may function as a client with requests for services from other programs and also as a server of requests from other programs.

Servers are often categorized in terms of their purpose. A Web server, for example, is a computer program that serves requested HTML pages or files. A Web client is the requesting program associated with the user. The Web browser in your computer is a client that requests HTML files from Web servers.

Here are a few types of servers, among a great number of other possibilities:

File servers
With a file server, the Computer Network client passes requests for computer network files or file records over a computer network to the file server. This form of computer network data service requires large bandwidth and can slow a computer network with many users down considerably. Traditional LAN (Local area Network) computing allows users to share resources, such as data files and peripheral devices, by moving them from standalone PCUs onto a Networked File Server (NFS).

Database servers-In database servers, clients passes SQL (Structured Query Language) requests as messages to the server and the results of the query are returned over the network. The code that processes the SQL request and the data resides on the server allowing it to use its own processing power to find the requested data, rather than pass all the records back to a client and let it find its owndata as was the case for the file server.

Transaction servers- Clients invoke remote procedures that reside on servers which also contains an SQL database engine. There are procedural statements on the server to execute a group of SQL statements (transactions) which either all succeed or fail as a unit. The applications based on transaction servers are called On-line Transaction Processing (OLTP) and tend to be mission-critical applications which require 1-3 second response time, 100% of the time and require tight controls over the security and integrity of the database.

Proxy Server
A proxy server sits between a client program (typically a Web browser) and an external server (typically another server on the Web) to filter requests, improve performance, and share connections. A proxy server is a computer that offers a computer network service to allow clients to make indirect network connections to other network services. A client connects to the proxy server, then requests a connection, file, or other resource available on a different server. The proxy provides the resource either by connecting to the specified server or by serving it from a cache. In some cases, the proxy may alter the client's request or the server's response for various purposes.

Mail Server

Almost as ubiquitous and crucial as Web servers, mail servers move and store mail over corporate networks (via LANs and WANs) and across the Internet. A mail server is the computerized equivalent of your friendly neighborhood mailman. Every email that is sent passes through a series of mail servers along its way to its intended recipient. Although it may seem like a message is sent instantly - zipping from one PC to another in the blink of an eye - the reality is that a complex series of transfers takes place. Without this series of mail servers, you would only be able to send emails to people whose email address domains matched your own - i.e., you could only send messages from one example.com account to another example.com account.

Server Platforms
A term often used synonymously with operating system, a platform is the underlying hardware or software for a system and is thus the engine that drives the server.

Web Server
At its core, a Web server serves static content to a Web browser by loading a file from a disk and serving it across the network to a user's Web browser. This entire exchange is mediated by the browser and server talking to each other using HTTP. A Web server is a program that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to serve the files that form Web pages to users, in response to their requests, which are forwarded by their computers' HTTP clients. Dedicated computers and appliances may be referred to as Web servers as well.

The process is an example of the client/server model. All computers that host Web sites must have Web server programs. Leading Web servers include Apache (the most widely-installed Web server), Microsoft's Internet Information Server (IIS) and nginx (pronounced engine X) from NGNIX. Other Web servers include Novell's NetWare server, Google Web Server (GWS) and IBM's family of Domino servers. Web servers often come as part of a larger package of Internet- and intranet-related programs for serving email, downloading requests for File Transfer Protocol (FTP) files, and building and publishing Web pages. Considerations in choosing a Web server include how well it works with the operating system and other servers, its ability to handle server-side programming, security characteristics, and  the particular publishing, search engine and site building tools that come with it.

Application Server
Sometimes referred to as a type of middleware, application servers occupy a large chunk of computing territory between database servers and the end user, and they often connect the two.

Real-Time Communication Server
Real-time communication servers, formerly known as chat servers or IRC Servers, and still sometimes referred to as instant messaging (IM) servers, enable large numbers users to exchange information near instantaneously.

FTP Server
One of the oldest of the Internet services, File Transfer Protocol makes it possible to move one or more files securely between computers while providing file security and organization as well as transfer control.

Collaboration Server
In many ways, collaboration software, once called 'groupware,' demonstrates the original power of the Web. Collaboration software designed to enable users to collaborate, regardless of location, via the Internet or a corporate intranet and to work together in a virtual atmosphere.

List Server
List servers offer a way to better manage mailing lists, whether they be interactive discussions open to the public or one-way lists that deliver announcements, newsletters or advertising.

Telnet Server
A Telnet server enables users to log on to a host computer and perform tasks as if they're working on the remote computer itself.

Open Source Server
From your underlying open source server operating system to the server software that help you get your job done, open source software is a critical part of many IT infrastructures.

Virtual Server
In 2009, the number of virtual servers deployed exceeded the number of physical servers. Today, server virtualization has become near ubiquitous in the data center. From hypervisors to hybrid clouds, ServerWatch looks at the latest virtualization technology trends. A server, usually a Web server, that shares computer resources with other virtual servers. In this context, the virtual part simply means that it is not a dedicated server-- that is, the entire computer is not dedicated to running the server software.

Virtual Web servers are a very popular way of providing low-cost web hosting services. Instead of requiring a separate computer for each server, dozens of virtual servers can co-reside on the same computer. In most cases, performance is not affected and each web site behaves as if it is being served by a dedicated server. However, if too many virtual servers reside on the same computer, or if one virtual server starts hogging resources, Web pages will be delivered more slowly.

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